Thyroid Disease & Pregnancy | NIDDK (2023)

On this page:

  • What role do thyroid hormones play in pregnancy?
  • Hyperthyroidism in Pregnancy
  • Hypothyroidism in Pregnancy
  • Postpartum Thyroiditis
  • Is it safe to breastfeed while I’m taking beta-blockers, thyroid hormone, or antithyroid medicines?
  • Thyroid Disease and Eating During Pregnancy
  • Clinical Trials

Thyroid disease is a group of disorders that affects the thyroid gland. The thyroid is a small, butterfly-shaped gland in the front of your neck that makes thyroid hormones. Thyroid hormones control how your body uses energy, so they affect the way nearly every organ in your body works—even the way your heart beats.

Thyroid Disease & Pregnancy | NIDDK (1)

Sometimes the thyroid makes too much or too little of these hormones. Too much thyroid hormone is called hyperthyroidism and can cause many of your body’s functions to speed up. “Hyper” means the thyroid is overactive. Learn more about hyperthyroidism in pregnancy. Too little thyroid hormone is called hypothyroidism and can cause many of your body’s functions to slow down. “Hypo” means the thyroid is underactive. Learn more about hypothyroidism in pregnancy.

If you have thyroid problems, you can still have a healthy pregnancy and protect your baby’s health by having regular thyroid function tests and taking any medicines that your doctor prescribes.

What role do thyroid hormones play in pregnancy?

Thyroid hormones are crucial for normal development of your baby’s brain and nervous system. During the first trimester—the first 3 months of pregnancy—your baby depends on your supply of thyroid hormone, which comes through the placenta. At around 12 weeks, your baby’s thyroid starts to work on its own, but it doesn’t make enough thyroid hormone until 18 to 20 weeks of pregnancy.

Two pregnancy-related hormones—human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) and estrogen—cause higher measured thyroid hormone levels in your blood. The thyroid enlarges slightly in healthy women during pregnancy, but usually not enough for a health care professional to feel during a physical exam.

Thyroid problems can be hard to diagnose in pregnancy due to higher levels of thyroid hormones and other symptoms that occur in both pregnancy and thyroid disorders. Some symptoms of hyperthyroidism or hypothyroidism are easier to spot and may prompt your doctor to test you for these thyroid diseases.

Another type of thyroid disease, postpartum thyroiditis, can occur after your baby is born.

Hyperthyroidism in Pregnancy

What are the symptoms of hyperthyroidism in pregnancy?

Some signs and symptoms of hyperthyroidism often occur in normal pregnancies, including faster heart rate, trouble dealing with heat, and tiredness.

Other signs and symptoms can suggest hyperthyroidism:

  • fast and irregular heartbeat
  • shaky hands
  • unexplained weight loss or failure to have normal pregnancy weight gain

What causes hyperthyroidism in pregnancy?

Hyperthyroidism in pregnancy is usually caused by Graves’ disease and occurs in 1 to 4 of every 1,000 pregnancies in the United States.1 Graves’ disease is an autoimmune disorder. With this disease, your immune system makes antibodies that cause the thyroid to make too much thyroid hormone. This antibody is called thyroid stimulating immunoglobulin, or TSI.

(Video) Thyroid Disease in Pregnancy Video – Brigham and Women’s Hospital

Graves’ disease may first appear during pregnancy. However, if you already have Graves’ disease, your symptoms could improve in your second and third trimesters. Some parts of your immune system are less active later in pregnancy so your immune system makes less TSI. This may be why symptoms improve. Graves’ disease often gets worse again in the first few months after your baby is born, when TSI levels go up again. If you have Graves’ disease, your doctor will most likely test your thyroid function monthly throughout your pregnancy and may need to treat your hyperthyroidism.1 Thyroid hormone levels that are too high can harm your health and your baby’s.

Thyroid Disease & Pregnancy | NIDDK (2)

Rarely, hyperthyroidism in pregnancy is linked to hyperemesis gravidarum—severe nausea and vomiting that can lead to weight loss and dehydration. Experts believe this severe nausea and vomiting is caused by high levels of hCG early in pregnancy. High hCG levels can cause the thyroid to make too much thyroid hormone. This type of hyperthyroidism usually goes away during the second half of pregnancy.

Less often, one or more nodules, or lumps in your thyroid, make too much thyroid hormone.

How can hyperthyroidism affect me and my baby?

Untreated hyperthyroidism during pregnancy can lead to

  • miscarriage
  • premature birth
  • low birthweight
  • preeclampsia—a dangerous rise in blood pressure in late pregnancy
  • thyroid storm—a sudden, severe worsening of symptoms
  • congestive heart failure

Rarely, Graves’ disease may also affect a baby’s thyroid, causing it to make too much thyroid hormone. Even if your hyperthyroidism was cured by radioactive iodine treatment to destroy thyroid cells or surgery to remove your thyroid, your body still makes the TSI antibody. When levels of this antibody are high, TSI may travel to your baby’s bloodstream. Just as TSI caused your own thyroid to make too much thyroid hormone, it can also cause your baby’s thyroid to make too much.

Tell your doctor if you’ve had surgery or radioactive iodine treatment for Graves’ disease so he or she can check your TSI levels. If they are very high, your doctor will monitor your baby for thyroid-related problems later in your pregnancy.

Thyroid Disease & Pregnancy | NIDDK (3)

An overactive thyroid in a newborn can lead to

  • a fast heart rate, which can lead to heart failure
  • early closing of the soft spot in the baby’s skull
  • poor weight gain
  • irritability

Sometimes an enlarged thyroid can press against your baby’s windpipe and make it hard for your baby to breathe. If you have Graves’ disease, your health care team should closely monitor you and your newborn.

How do doctors diagnose hyperthyroidism in pregnancy?

Your doctor will review your symptoms and do some blood tests to measure your thyroid hormone levels. Your doctor may also look for antibodies in your blood to see if Graves’ disease is causing your hyperthyroidism. Learn more about thyroid tests and what the results mean.

How do doctors treat hyperthyroidism during pregnancy?

If you have mild hyperthyroidism during pregnancy, you probably won’t need treatment. If your hyperthyroidism is linked to hyperemesis gravidarum, you only need treatment for vomiting and dehydration.

If your hyperthyroidism is more severe, your doctor may prescribe antithyroid medicines, which cause your thyroid to make less thyroid hormone. This treatment prevents too much of your thyroid hormone from getting into your baby’s bloodstream. You may want to see a specialist, such as an endocrinologist or expert in maternal-fetal medicine, who can carefully monitor your baby to make sure you’re getting the right dose.

(Video) Pregnancy and Autoimmune Thyroid Disease

Doctors most often treat pregnant women with the antithyroid medicine propylthiouracil (PTU) during the first 3 months of pregnancy. Another type of antithyroid medicine, methimazole, is easier to take and has fewer side effects, but is slightly more likely to cause serious birth defects than PTU. Birth defects with either type of medicine are rare. Sometimes doctors switch to methimazole after the first trimester of pregnancy. Some women no longer need antithyroid medicine in the third trimester.

Small amounts of antithyroid medicine move into the baby’s bloodstream and lower the amount of thyroid hormone the baby makes. If you take antithyroid medicine, your doctor will prescribe the lowest possible dose to avoid hypothyroidism in your baby but enough to treat the high thyroid hormone levels that can also affect your baby.

Antithyroid medicines can cause side effects in some people, including

  • allergic reactions such as rashes and itching
  • rarely, a decrease in the number of white blood cells in the body, which can make it harder for your body to fight infection
  • liver failure, in rare cases

Stop your antithyroid medicine and call your doctor right away if you develop any of these symptoms while taking antithyroid medicines:

  • yellowing of your skin or the whites of your eyes, called jaundice
  • dull pain in your abdomen
  • constant sore throat
  • fever

If you don’t hear back from your doctor the same day, you should go to the nearest emergency room.

You should also contact your doctor if any of these symptoms develop for the first time while you’re taking antithyroid medicines:

  • increased tiredness or weakness
  • loss of appetite
  • skin rash or itching
  • easy bruising

If you are allergic to or have severe side effects from antithyroid medicines, your doctor may consider surgery to remove part or most of your thyroid gland. The best time for thyroid surgery during pregnancy is in the second trimester.

Radioactive iodine treatment is not an option for pregnant women because it can damage the baby’s thyroid gland.

Hypothyroidism in Pregnancy

What are the symptoms of hypothyroidism in pregnancy?

Symptoms of an underactive thyroid are often the same for pregnant women as for other people with hypothyroidism. Symptoms include

  • extreme tiredness
  • trouble dealing with cold
  • muscle cramps
  • severe constipation
  • problems with memory or concentration
Thyroid Disease & Pregnancy | NIDDK (4)

Most cases of hypothyroidism in pregnancy are mild and may not have symptoms.

What causes hypothyroidism in pregnancy?

Hypothyroidism in pregnancy is usually caused by Hashimoto’s disease and occurs in 2 to 3 out of every 100 pregnancies.1 Hashimoto’s disease is an autoimmune disorder. In Hashimoto’s disease, the immune system makes antibodies that attack the thyroid, causing inflammation and damage that make it less able to make thyroid hormones.

(Video) Thyroid Disease in Pregnancy by Laleh Razavi-Nematollahi, MD

How can hypothyroidism affect me and my baby?

Untreated hypothyroidism during pregnancy can lead to

  • preeclampsia—a dangerous rise in blood pressure in late pregnancy
  • anemia
  • miscarriage
  • low birthweight
  • stillbirth
  • congestive heart failure, rarely

These problems occur most often with severe hypothyroidism.

Because thyroid hormones are so important to your baby’s brain and nervous system development, untreated hypothyroidism—especially during the first trimester—can cause low IQ and problems with normal development.

How do doctors diagnose hypothyroidism in pregnancy?

Your doctor will review your symptoms and do some blood tests to measure your thyroid hormone levels. Your doctor may also look for certain antibodies in your blood to see if Hashimoto’s disease is causing your hypothyroidism. Learn more about thyroid tests and what the results mean.

How do doctors treat hypothyroidism during pregnancy?

Treatment for hypothyroidism involves replacing the hormone that your own thyroid can no longer make. Your doctor will most likely prescribe levothyroxine, a thyroid hormone medicine that is the same as T4, one of the hormones the thyroid normally makes. Levothyroxine is safe for your baby and especially important until your baby can make his or her own thyroid hormone.

Your thyroid makes a second type of hormone, T3. Early in pregnancy, T3 can’t enter your baby’s brain like T4 can. Instead, any T3 that your baby’s brain needs is made from T4. T3 is included in a lot of thyroid medicines made with animal thyroid, such as Armour Thyroid, but is not useful for your baby’s brain development. These medicines contain too much T3 and not enough T4, and should not be used during pregnancy. Experts recommend only using levothyroxine (T4) while you’re pregnant.

Some women with subclinical hypothyroidism—a mild form of the disease with no clear symptoms—may not need treatment.

Thyroid Disease & Pregnancy | NIDDK (5)

If you had hypothyroidism before you became pregnant and are taking levothyroxine, you will probably need to increase your dose. Most thyroid specialists recommend taking two extra doses of thyroid medicine per week, starting right away. Contact your doctor as soon as you know you’re pregnant.

Your doctor will most likely test your thyroid hormone levels every 4 to 6 weeks for the first half of your pregnancy, and at least once after 30 weeks.1 You may need to adjust your dose a few times.

Postpartum Thyroiditis

What is postpartum thyroiditis?

Postpartum thyroiditis is an inflammation of the thyroid that affects about 1 in 20 women during the first year after giving birth1 and is more common in women with type 1 diabetes. The inflammation causes stored thyroid hormone to leak out of your thyroid gland. At first, the leakage raises the hormone levels in your blood, leading to hyperthyroidism. The hyperthyroidism may last up to 3 months. After that, some damage to your thyroid may cause it to become underactive. Your hypothyroidism may last up to a year after your baby is born. However, in some women, hypothyroidism doesn’t go away.

Not all women who have postpartum thyroiditis go through both phases. Some only go through the hyperthyroid phase, and some only the hypothyroid phase.

(Video) Thyroid Disease in Pregnancy - Stephen Kyle Gonzales, DO

What are the symptoms of postpartum thyroiditis?

The hyperthyroid phase often has no symptoms—or only mild ones. Symptoms may include irritability, trouble dealing with heat, tiredness, trouble sleeping, and fast heartbeat.

Symptoms of the hypothyroid phase may be mistaken for the “baby blues”—the tiredness and moodiness that sometimes occur after the baby is born. Symptoms of hypothyroidism may also include trouble dealing with cold; dry skin; trouble concentrating; and tingling in your hands, arms, feet, or legs. If these symptoms occur in the first few months after your baby is born or you develop postpartum depression, talk with your doctor as soon as possible.

What causes postpartum thyroiditis?

Postpartum thyroiditis is an autoimmune condition similar to Hashimoto’s disease. If you have postpartum thyroiditis, you may have already had a mild form of autoimmune thyroiditis that flares up after you give birth.

Thyroid Disease & Pregnancy | NIDDK (6)

How do doctors diagnose postpartum thyroiditis?

If you have symptoms of postpartum thyroiditis, your doctor will order blood tests to check your thyroid hormone levels.

How do doctors treat postpartum thyroiditis?

The hyperthyroid stage of postpartum thyroiditis rarely needs treatment. If your symptoms are bothering you, your doctor may prescribe a beta-blocker, a medicine that slows your heart rate. Antithyroid medicines are not useful in postpartum thyroiditis, but if you have Grave’s disease, it may worsen after your baby is born and you may need antithyroid medicines.

You’re more likely to have symptoms during the hypothyroid stage. Your doctor may prescribe thyroid hormone medicine to help with your symptoms. If your hypothyroidism doesn’t go away, you will need to take thyroid hormone medicine for the rest of your life.

Is it safe to breastfeed while I’m taking beta-blockers, thyroid hormone, or antithyroid medicines?

Certain beta-blockers are safe to use while you’re breastfeeding because only a small amount shows up in breast milk. The lowest possible dose to relieve your symptoms is best. Only a small amount of thyroid hormone medicine reaches your baby through breast milk, so it’s safe to take while you’re breastfeeding. However, in the case of antithyroid drugs, your doctor will most likely limit your dose to no more than 20 milligrams (mg) of methimazole or, less commonly, 400 mg of PTU.

Thyroid Disease and Eating During Pregnancy

What should I eat during pregnancy to help keep my thyroid and my baby’s thyroid working well?

Because the thyroid uses iodine to make thyroid hormone, iodine is an important mineral for you while you’re pregnant. During pregnancy, your baby gets iodine from your diet. You’ll need more iodine when you’re pregnant—about 250 micrograms a day.1 Good sources of iodine are dairy foods, seafood, eggs, meat, poultry, and iodized salt—salt with added iodine. Experts recommend taking a prenatal vitamin with 150 micrograms of iodine to make sure you’re getting enough, especially if you don’t use iodized salt.1 You also need more iodine while you’re breastfeeding since your baby gets iodine from breast milk. However, too much iodine from supplements such as seaweed can cause thyroid problems. Talk with your doctor about an eating plan that’s right for you and what supplements you should take. Learn more about a healthy diet and nutrition during pregnancy.

Clinical Trials

The National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases (NIDDK) and other components of the National Institutes of Health (NIH) conduct and support research into many diseases and conditions.

What are clinical trials, and are they right for you?

Clinical trials are part of clinical research and at the heart of all medical advances. Clinical trials look at new ways to prevent, detect, or treat disease. Researchers also use clinical trials to look at other aspects of care, such as improving the quality of life for people with chronic illnesses. Find out if clinical trials are right for you.

What clinical trials are open?

Clinical trials that are currently open and are recruiting can be viewed at www.ClinicalTrials.gov.

(Video) Treatment of Subclinical Hypothyroidism or Hypothyroxinemia in Pregnancy

References

FAQs

Can a woman with thyroid problems get pregnant? ›

An undiagnosed thyroid condition can make it difficult to conceive. It can also cause problems during pregnancy itself. Once the over- or underactive thyroid is under control, however, there is no reason why you should not have a successful pregnancy and a healthy baby.

Is pregnancy safe with hypothyroidism? ›

Hypothyroidism can also interfere with the development of an embryo (fertilized egg). This increases the risk of miscarriage. Also, if you are pregnant and your hypothyroidism is not treated, your baby may be born prematurely (before the predicted due date), weigh less than normal, and have lowered mental capacity.

Does hypothyroidism affect baby during pregnancy? ›

Hypothyroidism and pregnancy

Deprivation of the maternal thyroid hormone due to hypothyroidism can have irreversible effects on the fetus. Early studies found that children born to mothers with hypothyroidism during pregnancy had lower IQ and impaired psychomotor (mental and motor) development.

How can I control my thyroid to get pregnant? ›

If you had hyperthyroidism (overactive thyroid) before getting pregnant, your healthcare provider may prescribe antithyroid medicines called propylthiouracil in the first trimester and change to medications called methimazole in the second and third trimesters.

Is thyroid transfer from mother to baby? ›

Thyroid hormones transfer from mother to embryo by placental cord that have deiodinase enzyme for transformation T4 to T3. But in second and third trimester, in addition to mother, the embryo can produce thyroid hormones.

What happens if TSH is high during pregnancy? ›

The present study showed that higher TSH was associated with miscarriage in early pregnancy. In fact, TSH levels between 2.5 and 4.87 mIU/L increased the risk for miscarriage, with TSH greater than 4.87 mIU/L increasing the risk even further.

What is the TSH level to get pregnant? ›

Conventional wisdom suggests that 4.2 should be the upper limit for TSH. However, recent studies have suggested that TSH should be no higher than 2.5 when trying to conceive and 3.0 during pregnancy. Thyroid hormones are synthesised from iodine, so it is also important that iodine levels are optimal.

Does thyroid affect normal delivery? ›

But if your thyroid isn't making enough hormones, you and your baby are at risk. Studies have linked untreated hypothyroidism during pregnancy to an increased risk of miscarriage and premature delivery.

Can hypothyroidism cause autism in pregnancy? ›

Although there was an elevated risk of autism in children of women diagnosed with hypothyroidism in pregnancy but having normal TSH and fT4 levels, results did not reach statistical significance. This suggests that well-controlled hypothyroidism during pregnancy may reduce the risk of autism in children.

Is it safe to take thyroid medicine while pregnant? ›

The treatment for hypothyroidism is often referred to as thyroid hormone replacement therapy. It uses the medication levothyroxine to bring your thyroid hormone levels back up to normal. According to the Food and Drug Association (FDA), levothyroxine is safe to take in pregnancy.

What are early warning signs of thyroid problems? ›

7 Early Warning Signs of Thyroid Issues
  • Fatigue.
  • Weight gain.
  • Weight loss.
  • Slowed heart rate.
  • Increased heart rate.
  • Sensitivity to heat.
  • Sensitivity to cold.
11 Jan 2021

What is the main cause of thyroid disease? ›

The most common cause of hypothyroidism is an autoimmune disorder known as Hashimoto's thyroiditis. Autoimmune disorders occur when your immune system produces antibodies that attack your own tissues. Sometimes this process involves your thyroid gland.

Does thyroid affect periods? ›

Your thyroid helps control your menstrual cycle. Too much or too little thyroid hormone can make your periods very light, heavy, or irregular. Thyroid disease also can cause your periods to stop for several months or longer, a condition called amenorrhea.

Can I breastfeed with hyperthyroidism? ›

High thyroid levels (hyperthyroid)

Hyperthyroidism is not a contraindication for breastfeeding. Per Medications and Mothers' Milk (Hale 2017, p. 558-559, 564-565), only exceedingly low levels of thyroid hormones (both T4/levothyroxine and T3/liothyronine) transfer into breastmilk.

Is hypothyroidism a disability? ›

Hypothyroidism and Social Security

You can suffer from a variety of thyroid gland disorders, and many of them can have a major negative impact on your life. If a thyroid disorder has rendered you disabled to work, you could be eligible to receive Social Security Disability benefits.

Does thyroid affect breast milk? ›

Thyroid issues often cause difficulty with milk supply and with milk removal. Mothers may find their thyroid levels change with pregnancy and childbirth, which is why frequent testing of mother is recommended. Depending on the medication, your baby's levels may also need to be checked regularly postpartum.

Can I lower my TSH naturally? ›

Exercise helps increase the thyroid hormones T4 and T3 and decreases TSH as shown in this study. But there are also some supplements and herbs you can take to help boost your energy levels, like vitamin B12, iron, Ashwagandha, and ginseng.

How can I treat my thyroid naturally during pregnancy? ›

Here are some dietary tips that help pregnant women with hyperthyroidism:
  1. Eat more cruciferous vegetables. Broccoli, cauliflower, cabbage etc are goitrogens that help decrease the production of thyroid hormones.
  2. Load up on Zinc. ...
  3. Avoid Iodine rich food. ...
  4. Include lean meats.
5 Apr 2017

What is effect on baby if mother is hyperthyroidism? ›

In general, subclinical hyperthyroidism is rarely associated with adverse gestational outcomes [3], whereas uncontrolled thyrotoxicosis significantly increases the risk of maternal and fetal complications, such as pregnancy-induced hypertension, maternal congestive heart failure, pregnancy loss, prematurity, low birth ...

Can thyroid problems cause miscarriage? ›

Untreated thyroid conditions during pregnancy are linked to serious problems, including premature birth, miscarriage and stillbirth. If your thyroid condition is treated during pregnancy, you can have a healthy pregnancy and a healthy baby.

Does high TSH affect egg quality? ›

With elevated TSH levels, the quality of eggs retrieved is compromised. This results in lower pregnancy rates. It is therefore important that the TSH level be normalized prior to an IVF cycle.

Can I get pregnant with hyperthyroidism? ›

Hypothyroidism and hyperthyroidism can each negatively impact fertility—both the ability to become pregnant and the ability to carry a fetus to term. The presence of autoimmune antibodies, with or without hyper or hypothyroidism, can also impact your fertility.

Which food is good for thyroid during pregnancy? ›

List of foods that are best for you during pregnancy with hypothyroid state:
  • Cereals: Oats, buckwheat and quinoa are the best options. ...
  • 3. Fruits: All except pear, peach, strawberry and papaya. ...
  • Dairy: To have high fat or low fat dairy products can best be decided by your dietitian. ...
  • Avoid feasting out regularly.
4 Sept 2022

What happens if I miss my thyroid medication while pregnant? ›

If you miss your dose of synthetic thyroid hormone (Levothyroxine), don't panic. Supplemental T4 hormone circulates in your blood for several days, so one missed dose won't harm you.

What happens if T4 is high in pregnancy? ›

Hyperthyroidism and high-normal free T4 levels in pregnancy are associated with an increased risk for pregnancy-induced hypertension and preeclampsia, according to findings from a population-based cohort study. The study was published online ahead of print in the Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism.

Can I have a healthy baby with Hashimoto's? ›

However, keep in mind that most people with Hashimoto's have successful pregnancies and healthy babies. Watch your health, stick with your treatment regimen, and let your doctor know about any problems or concerns.

Is it harder to get pregnant with Hashimoto's? ›

Can I get pregnant with Hashimoto's disease? Yes, but since Hashimoto's disease is linked to infertility it can make getting pregnant more difficult. That's because decreased levels of thyroid hormone interfere with ovulation.

Can hyperthyroidism be mistaken for autism? ›

Kellman's report, cases of low thyroid function can go undetected due to inaccurate or inefficient blood tests. Additionally, symptoms of autism and hypothyroidism are similar. These factors might lead to a missed diagnosis of either one of the two disorders.

Can thyroid medication cause birth defects? ›

Results: Thyroid hormone was used by 738 (2.3%) case and 237 (2.1%) control mothers, and was associated with anencephaly (OR = 1.68; 95% CI, 1.03-2.73), holoprosencephaly (OR = 2.48; 95% CI, 1.13-5.44), hydrocephaly (1.77; 95% CI, 1.07-2.95) and small intestinal atresia (OR = 1.81; 95% CI, 1.04-3.15).

Do and don'ts for thyroid patient? ›

-Take an adequate amount of sleep and avoid stress as they lead to overeating and unhealthy food choices. -Limit your intake of processed food and drink lots of water. -It is important to consume iodine when trying to lose weight, but restrict processed salt intake and opt for natural sources of iodine.

What foods help heal thyroid? ›

Thyroid Superfoods
  • Roasted seaweed. Seaweed, such as kelp, nori, and wakame, are naturally rich in iodine--a trace element needed for normal thyroid function. ...
  • Salted nuts. Brazil nuts, macadamia nuts, and hazelnuts are excellent sources of selenium, which helps support healthy thyroid function. ...
  • Baked fish. ...
  • Dairy. ...
  • Fresh eggs.
11 Jan 2018

Is coffee good for thyroid? ›

Per a study in the journal Thyroid, caffeine has been found to block absorption of thyroid hormone replacement. "People who were taking their thyroid medication with their morning coffee had uncontrollable thyroid levels, and we couldn't figure it out," says Dr. Lee.

What should my thyroid levels be to get pregnant? ›

The best way to assess thyroid levels is to ask for a blood test. Conventional wisdom suggests that 4.2 should be the upper limit for TSH. However, recent studies have suggested that TSH should be no higher than 2.5 when trying to conceive and 3.0 during pregnancy.

What is the best thyroid level to get pregnant? ›

Q: What is an optimal TSH level for fertility? A: In general, a normal range for TSH levels are around 3 to 3.5. If you're trying to get pregnant or are looking at managing your thyroid hormones during pregnancy, you want a level between 1 and 2.4.

Does thyroid medicine affect periods? ›

Your thyroid helps control your menstrual cycle. Too much or too little thyroid hormone can make your periods very light, heavy, or irregular. Thyroid disease also can cause your periods to stop for several months or longer, a condition called amenorrhea.

Is it hard to get pregnant with hyperthyroidism? ›

Women who experience hyperthyroidism may experience fewer menstrual cycles or lighter menstrual cycles. This can throw off timing when trying to conceive. An altered cycle could also mean that parts of the normal cycle are being disrupted, such as ovulation.

Will thyroid medicine help me get pregnant? ›

Another study found that treating hypothyroidism with medication not only improved conception rates, but also reduced miscarriages early in pregnancy, which can happen as a result of untreated severe hypothyroidism.

How much does levothyroxine increase pregnancy? ›

Levothyroxine dosage increased as pregnancy progressed. Compared with preconception levothyroxine dosage, the median increases were 17.9% at first trimester, 35.7% at second trimester and 43.6% at third trimester.

How long does it take to get pregnant after starting levothyroxine? ›

After getting proper treatment for their hypothyroidism though, almost 80% of those women conceived within 6 weeks to 1 year.

Can thyroid cause miscarriage? ›

Untreated thyroid conditions during pregnancy are linked to serious problems, including premature birth, miscarriage and stillbirth.

What TSH level causes miscarriage? ›

In fact, TSH levels between 2.5 and 4.87 mIU/L increased the risk for miscarriage, with TSH greater than 4.87 mIU/L increasing the risk even further.

What are early warning signs of thyroid problems? ›

7 Early Warning Signs of Thyroid Issues
  • Fatigue.
  • Weight gain.
  • Weight loss.
  • Slowed heart rate.
  • Increased heart rate.
  • Sensitivity to heat.
  • Sensitivity to cold.
11 Jan 2021

At what age do thyroid problems start? ›

Having too much of these hormones can cause unpleasant and potentially serious problems that may need treatment. An overactive thyroid can affect anyone, but it's about 10 times more common in women than men, and typically happens between 20 and 40 years of age.

What is the main cause of thyroid disease? ›

The most common cause of hypothyroidism is an autoimmune disorder known as Hashimoto's thyroiditis. Autoimmune disorders occur when your immune system produces antibodies that attack your own tissues. Sometimes this process involves your thyroid gland.

Is a thyroid problem serious? ›

Thyroid disorders can range from a harmless goiter (or enlarged gland) that needs no treatment at all to life-threatening thyroid cancer. However, the two most common thyroid problems involve the abnormal production of thyroid hormones. Both conditions are serious and require medical attention.

Can thyroid be cured by exercise? ›

Exercise can help with many of the symptoms of thyroid problems, but it cannot cure the root cause. Regular exercise has many benefits, whether you have a thyroid condition or not. It can improve your cardiovascular fitness, your strength and muscle mass, your mood, and help you achieve a healthy weight.

How long does it take to get pregnant with hyperthyroidism? ›

If you have mild hyperthyroidism it's unlikely to affect your fertility and may resolve completely after a year or two of anti-thyroid medication.

How can I lower my TSH levels fast? ›

Taking certain vitamin supplements can have an effect on your thyroid health. Low thyroid hormones can affect your body's vitamin B-12 levels. Taking a vitamin B-12 supplement may help you repair some of the damage hypothyroidism caused.
...
Vitamin B
  1. peas and beans.
  2. asparagus.
  3. sesame seeds.
  4. tuna.
  5. cheese.
  6. milk.
  7. eggs.
18 Mar 2020

Videos

1. Thyroid Disease in Pregnancy - CRASH! Medical Review Series
(Paul Bolin, M.D.)
2. HYPOTHYROIDISM DURING PREGNANCY AND HOW TO MANAGE IT.
(MEDSimplified)
3. Meet the Experts webinar - thyroid disease in pregnancy
(BTFThyroid)
4. Examining abnormal thyroid function during pregnancy.
(Medmastery)
5. Medical Disorders of Pregnancy- Thyroid Disorders
(OBS & GYNO PROFESSOR)
6. THYROID THURSDAY - Pregnancy and Graves' Disease
(Raymond Douglas, MD PhD)
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