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Journal of Anxiety Disorders
Volume 22, Issue 4,
, Pages 716-721
While cognitive behavior therapy has been found to be effective in the treatment of generalized anxiety disorder (GAD), a significant percentage of patients struggle with residual symptoms. There is some conceptual basis for suggesting that cultivation of mindfulness may be helpful for people with GAD. Mindfulness-based cognitive therapy (MBCT) is a group treatment derived from mindfulness-based stress reduction (MBSR) developed by Jon Kabat-Zinn and colleagues. MBSR uses training in mindfulness meditation as the core of the program. MBCT incorporates cognitive strategies and has been found effective in reducing relapse in patients with major depression (Teasdale, J. D., Segal, Z. V., Williams, J. M. G., Ridgeway, V., Soulsby, J., & Lau, M. (2000). Prevention of relapse/recurrence in major depression by mindfulness-based cognitive therapy. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 6, 615–623).
Eligible subjects recruited to a major academic medical center participated in the group MBCT course and completed measures of anxiety, worry, depressive symptoms, mood states and mindful awareness in everyday life at baseline and end of treatment.
Eleven subjects (six female and five male) with a mean age of 49 (range=36–72) met criteria and completed the study. There were significant reductions in anxiety and depressive symptoms from baseline to end of treatment.
MBCT may be an acceptable and potentially effective treatment for reducing anxiety and mood symptoms and increasing awareness of everyday experiences in patients with GAD. Future directions include development of a randomized clinical trial of MBCT for GAD.
Generalized anxiety disorder (GAD), characterized by long-term, intense, and excessive worry, is a chronic, relatively common disorder with high rates of co-morbidity (Brown & Barlow, 1992). The estimated lifetime prevalence rate for GAD is 5.7% (Kessler, Berglund, Demler, Jin, & Walters, 2005), and the diagnosis is associated with considerable distress and impairment in social and occupational functioning (Maier et al., 2000).
Cognitive behavior therapy (CBT) has been found to be efficacious in the treatment of GAD (Borkovec & Ruscio, 2001; Borkovec, Newman, Lytle, & Pincus, 2002; Butler, Fennell, Robson, & Gelder, 1991; Ladouceur et al., 2000). Borkovec and Ruscio (2001) point out the typical CBT approach for GAD involves training clients to detect internal and external anxiety cues and to employ strategies to manage the psychological and somatic symptoms. While CBT is effective in treating the disorder, GAD nonetheless remains the least successfully treated of the anxiety disorders (Brown, Barlow, & Liebowitz, 1994). Ninan (2001) points out that nearly twice as many patients in treatment for GAD achieve partial remission as those who achieve full remission and indicates the persistence of residual symptoms in many who respond to treatment.
Roemer and Orsillo (2002) provide a conceptual understanding of integrating mindfulness and acceptance-based perspectives to the extant models and treatment of GAD. Mindfulness, moment-to-moment non-judgmental awareness, is cultivated through the regular practice of mindfulness meditation and emphasizes an open awareness to the contents of the mind. Roemer and Orsillo (2002) point out that since the nature of worry is future directed, training in present-moment mindful awareness may provide a useful alternative way of responding for individuals with GAD. Astin (1997) suggests that the techniques of mindfulness meditation help the person to develop a stance of detached observation towards the contents of consciousness and may be a useful cognitive behavioral coping strategy.
The mindfulness-based stress reduction (MBSR) program developed by Jon Kabat-Zinn and his colleagues (Kabat-Zinn, 1990) at the University of Massachusetts Medical School helps individuals develop mindfulness through intensive training in mindfulness meditation. MBSR is an intensive, structured, client-centered approach that has been used successfully in a range of clinical settings, hospitals and schools. MBSR is integral to mindfulness-based cognitive therapy (MBCT; Segal, Williams, & Teasdale, 2002) which has been found useful for the prevention of relapse in depression (Teasdale et al., 2000). Some other cognitive behavioral psychotherapies, such as dialectal behavior therapy (Linehan, 1993) and acceptance and commitment therapy (Hayes, Strosahl, & Wilson, 1999), include mindfulness and acceptance strategies. Currently, there are a few non-randomized trials of MBSR for anxiety disorders (Kabat-Zinn et al., 1992; Miller, Fletcher, & Kabat-Zinn, 1995) that suggest intensive training in mindfulness meditation may be helpful in reducing anxiety. In a recent open trial of acceptance-based behavior therapy for GAD, Roemer and Orsillo (2007) found that patients who received a treatment combining CBT and learning and practicing mindfulness and acceptance-based strategies experienced significant reductions in symptoms and improvement in quality of life.
However, a recent report published by the Cochrane Collaboration (Krisanaprakornkit, Krisanaprakornkit, Piyavhatkul, & Laopaiboon, 2006) raises a question as to the feasibility and acceptability of meditation based treatments for GAD. This report focused only on randomized clinical trials investigating the effectiveness of meditation for anxiety disorders. Only 2 of 50 studies, one involving transcendental meditation and the other utilizing kundalini yoga, met the rigorous inclusion criteria. Drop out rate was quite high in both studies and could suggest that the intensity and adherence to practicing regular meditation in individuals suffering from anxiety disorders may be of significant consideration. The authors concluded that the small number of studies did not permit conclusions to be drawn on the effectiveness of meditation for anxiety disorders and suggested that more trials are needed.
One rationale for testing new treatments for GAD is related to the fact that despite effective therapies, the persistence of residual GAD symptoms in treatment responders is a problem. Conceptually, it makes sense that the development of mindfulness in individuals with GAD would be beneficial since a mindful state of being captures a quality of consciousness that is characterized by a clarity and vividness of current experience (Brown & Ryan, 2003). Nonetheless, practice of mindfulness meditation is demanding for anyone and may present particular challenges to individuals with GAD whose contents of mental consciousness are for most of the time oriented away from present moment to moment awareness.
The purpose of the study was to investigate whether an open trial of an 8-week group mindfulness-based cognitive therapy program that focused on intensive training in mindfulness meditation and integrated principles of cognitive behavior therapy would be an acceptable and effective treatment for patients suffering from GAD.
Participants were recruited to this academic medical institution via posted notices around the hospital and letters sent to the faculty. A clinical psychologist or psychiatrist screened interested subjects for inclusion and exclusion criteria. Inclusion criteria were (a) 18–80 years of age, (b) English speaking, (c) medically stable, (d) met criteria for GAD determined by the modified version of the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM IV (First, Spitzer, Gibbon, & Williams, 1997). Since the
Of 36 subjects who were screened for the study, 12 met inclusion criteria and participated in the study. Eight patients were excluded due to co-morbid major depression. Several patients screened either did not meet criteria for GAD or were no longer able to commit to the 8-week program once the group was scheduled. One subject was excluded from the final data analysis because of the onset of a medical problem during the 8-week trial. Results are reported on the 11 subjects (6 female and 5 male)
Results from this small open trial of MBCT for GAD demonstrate that subjects in the study, as a group, experienced a significant decrease in their anxiety, tension, worry and depressive symptoms following an 8-week group mindfulness based course. Also, patients who exhibited clinically significant symptoms of measures of anxiety, worry and depressive symptomatology experienced a drop in their symptoms comparable to those of a non-clinical population. While there was a mean increase in mindful
- L. Roemer et al.An open trial of an acceptance-based behavior therapy for generalized anxiety disorder
- J.J. Miller et al.Three-year follow-up and clinical implications of a mindfulness meditation-based stress reduction intervention in the treatment of anxiety disorders
General Hospital Psychiatry
- T.J. Meyer et al.Development and validation of the Penn State Worry Questionnaire
Behaviour Research and Therapy
- D.M. Fresco et al.Using the Penn State Worry Questionnaire to identify individuals with generalized anxiety disorder: a receiver operating character analysis
Journal of Behavior Therapy and Experimental Psychiatry
- J.A. Astin
Stress reduction through mindfulness meditation: effects on psychological symptomatology, sense of control and spiritual experiences
Psychotherapy and Psychosomatics
- A.T. Beck et al.
Beck anxiety inventory manual
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Comparison of the Beck Depression Inventories-IA and II in psychiatric outpatients
Journal of Personality Assessment
- T.D. Borkovec et al.
Psychotherapy for generalized anxiety disorder
Journal of Clinical Psychiatry
- T.D. Borkovec et al.
A component analysis of cognitive behavioral therapy for generalized anxiety disorder and the role of interpersonal problems
Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology
- T.A. Brown et al.
Comorbidity among anxiety disorders: implications for treatment and DSM-IV(Video) The Mindful Way through Anxiety
Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology
The benefits of being present: the role of mindfulness in psychological well-being
Journal of Personality and Social Psychology
The empirical basis of generalized anxiety disorder
American Journal of Psychiatry
Comparison of behavior therapy and cognitive behavior therapy in the treatment of generalized anxiety disorder
Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology
Structured clinical interview for DSM-IV Axis I Disorder (SCID-I)
- An Open Trial of Telephone-Delivered Mindfulness-Based Cognitive Therapy: Feasibility, Acceptability, and Preliminary Efficacy for Reducing Depressive Symptoms
2022, Cognitive and Behavioral Practice
Mindfulness-based cognitive therapy (MBCT) is a promising intervention for reducing depressive symptoms in individuals with comorbid chronic disease, but the program’s attendance demands make it inaccessible to many who might benefit. We tested the feasibility, acceptability, safety, and preliminary efficacy of an abbreviated, telephone-delivered adaptation of the in-person mindfulness-based cognitive therapy (MBCT-T) program in a sample of patients with depressive symptoms and hypertension.
Participants (n = 14; 78.6% female, mean age = 60.6) with mild to moderate depressive symptoms and hypertension participated in the 8-week MBCT-T program. Feasibility was indexed via session attendance and home-based practice completion. Acceptability was indexed via self-reported satisfaction scores. Safety was assessed via reports of symptomatic decline or need for additional mental health treatment. Depressive symptoms (Quick Inventory of Depressive Symptomatology–Self-Report [QIDS-SR]) and anxiety (Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale—Anxiety subscale; HADS-A) were assessed at baseline and immediately following the intervention.
Sixty-four percent of participants (n = 9) attended ≥4 intervention sessions. Seventy-one percent (n = 6) of participants reported completing all assigned formal home practice and 89.2% (n = 8) reported completing all assigned informal practice. Participants were either very satisfied (75%; n = 6) or mostly satisfied (25%; n = 2) with the intervention. There were no adverse events or additional need for mental health treatment. Depressive symptom scores were 4.09 points lower postintervention (p = .004). Anxiety scores were 3.18 points lower postintervention (p = .039).
Results support the feasibility, acceptability, safety, and preliminary efficacy of an abbreviated, telephone-delivered version of MBCT for reducing depressive and anxiety symptoms in individuals with co-occurring chronic disease.
- Mindfulness and Eating Disorders: A Network Analysis
2022, Behavior Therapy
Higher trait mindfulness may be protective against eating disorder (ED) pathology. However, little is understood about which specific mindfulness processes connect to specific ED symptoms. This study (N = 1,056 undergraduates) used network analysis at the symptom/process level to identify: (1) central nodes, or symptoms/processes with the greatest collective connection with all other symptoms/processes; and (2) bridge nodes, or symptoms/processes driving interconnection between mindfulness processes and ED symptoms. We conducted analyses both with and without food- and body-related mindfulness items. Central nodes included: describing how one feels in detail, expressing how one feels in words, and feeling guilty about eating due to shape/weight. Bridge nodes connecting higher mindfulness processes with lower ED symptoms included: the eating disorder symptom, being uncomfortable about others seeing one eat, and the mindfulness process, not criticizing oneself for having irrational/inappropriate emotions. Bridge nodes connecting higher mindfulness processes with higher ED symptoms included: noticing sensations of the body moving when walking and noticing how food/drinks affect thoughts, bodily sensations, and emotions. Findings suggest that future research should explore whether mindfulness-based interventions for EDs may be more effective by targeting mindfulness processes related to describing, expressing, and accepting emotions, accepting discomfort when eating with others, and reducing hyper-focus on and reactivity to food-and-body related sensations.
- Effects of mindfulness training on resilience, self-confidence and emotion regulation of elite football players: The mediating role of locus of control
2022, Asian Journal of Sport and Exercise Psychology
This study investigated effects of mindfulness training on resilience, self-confidence and emotion regulation of elite football players as well as mediating role of locus of control. The study recruited 34 participants which were assigned into experimental (n=17) and control (n=17) groups. Age ranged between 16 and 32years (M age=22.6years, SD=1.47). The experimental group received 8 weeks mindfulness acceptance commitment (MAC) intervention program, while control group received no intervention. Participants completed Five Facet Mindfulness Questionnaire (FFMQ), The Connor-Davidson Resilience scale (CD-RISC), Trait Sport Confidence Inventory (TSCI), Emotion Regulation Questionnaire (ERQ) and Adapted Levenson Multidimensional Locus of control scales (ALMLC). Both groups completed the questionnaire at pre-test and post-test evaluation. Descriptive data employed mean and standard deviation, while Structural Equation Modelling (SEM) of Sӧrbom's method (alternative to analysis of covariance) was used for analysis of hypothesis. Finding of the study showed that there is significant direct and indirect effect of mindfulness acceptance commitment on resilience, self-confidence and emotion regulation on elite football players. The findings further showed that there is significant difference between the pre-test scores and post-test scores of intervention group and control group. The intervention group mean scores on resilience, self-confidence and emotion regulation are higher than the control group counterparts. This shows that MAC program is effective in increasing resilience, self-confidence and emotion regulation of elite football players concurrently which in turn could improve performance and attain success.
- The meditative approach of concentration within therapeutic management and its impact on mental health: A review of the literature on controlled and randomized clinical trials
2021, Annales Medico-Psychologiques
Les recherches sur la méditation dans le champ des thérapies complémentaires et alternatives sont de plus en plus importantes. En effet, beaucoup de travaux soulignent les effets bénéfiques en termes de santé physique et psychique de la méditation. Dans le cadre des deux grandes orientations de techniques de méditation (concentration et pleine conscience), nous allons nous concentrer dans cette étude sur la méditation de concentration (méditation mantra et transcendantale). Après avoir encadré la notion à un niveau théorique, nous développerons une revue de la littérature (randomisés, comparaison avant/après) sur cette forme de pratique en ciblant précisément la méditation transcendante et de mantra ainsi que d’autres formes utilisant uniquement la concentration afin de mettre en lumière les effets thérapeutiques de cette approche sur la santé mentale et de souligner son efficacité. Cependant, nous resterons prudents quant à émettre des conclusions hâtives sur les effets bénéfiques systématiques de cette pratique en mettant en lumière l’importance des limites méthodologiques que l’on retrouve dans ces travaux depuis les quarante dernières années en proposant des pistes d’amélioration.
Research on meditation in the field of complementary and alternative therapies is increasingly important. Indeed, many works highlight the beneficial effects in terms of physical and mental health of meditation. Within the framework of the two main directions of meditation techniques (concentration and mindfulness), we will focus in this study on concentration meditation (mantra and transcendental meditation). After having framed the notion at a theoretical level, we will develop a review of the literature (randomized, before/after comparison) on this form of practice by precisely targeting transcendent and mantra meditation as well as other forms using only concentration in order to highlight the therapeutic effects of this approach on mental health and to emphasize its effectiveness. However, we will remain cautious about issuing hasty conclusions on the systematic beneficial effects of this practice by highlighting the importance of the methodological limitations that we find in this work for the past 40years by proposing avenues for improvement.(Video) Generalized Anxiety Disorder: The CBT Approach
Research articleSubthreshold and threshold DSM-IV generalized anxiety disorder in Singapore: Results from a nationally representative sample
Journal of Anxiety Disorders, Volume 32, 2015, pp. 73-80
Previous nationally representative studies have reported prevalence of DSM-IV generalized anxiety disorder (GAD). However, subthreshold and threshold GAD expressions remain poorly understood. The current study examined the prevalence, correlates and co-morbidity of a broader diagnosis of GAD in Singapore. The Singapore Mental Health Study (SMHS) was an epidemiological survey conducted in the population (N=6616) aged 18 years and older. The Composite International Diagnostic Interview version 3.0 (CIDI 3.0) was used to establish mental disorder diagnoses. The lifetime prevalence for subthreshold GAD (2.1%) and threshold GAD (1.5%) in the current sample was found to be lower than in Western populations. Younger age group, Indian ethnicity, previously married, chronic physical conditions, and being unemployed were associated with higher odds of having more severe expression of generalized anxiety. The relatively lower prevalence rate of subthreshold GAD expression suggests possible cultural interferences in the reporting and manifestation of anxiety symptomatology. Despite the low prevalence, significant impacts on functioning and comorbidity among subthreshold generalized anxiety cases indicate the importance of early treatment to ensure a better prognosis.
Research articleThe Chinese medicine construct “stagnation” in mind–body connection mediates the effects of mindfulness training on depression and anxiety
Complementary Therapies in Medicine, Volume 21, Issue 4, 2013, pp. 348-357
Previous studies have identified different, but highly correlated variables explaining the effects of mindfulness training. Many of them are limited by tautological explanation. Under the framework of the mind–body connection, mindfulness training cultivates body awareness and promotes self-management of illness. Stagnation, a concept from Chinese medicine, may help explain the mechanism of change in mindfulness training.
Individuals with depressive and anxiety symptoms (n=82) were randomized to either a Compassion-Mindfulness Therapy (C-MT) program or a waitlist control condition. The effect of stagnation as a mediator was investigated for dependent variables including depression, anxiety, and other physical and mental health variables.
Depression, anxiety, stagnation, physical distress, daily functioning, positive affect, negative affect.
Compared with the participants in the control group, those who completed C-MT demonstrated significant decreases in depression, F(1, 78)=15.67, p<.001, anxiety, F(1, 78)=7.72, p<.001, stagnation, F(1, 78)=4.96, p<.001, and other body–mind–spirit well-being measures. After entering the change in stagnation as the mediator, the effect of treatment reduced: depression (.35–.22), anxiety (.33–.05), and same patterns in other three secondary measures. The Sobel test was administered and significant reductions between group and depression (z=2.18, p=.029), anxiety (z=2.21, p=.027), and three secondary other measures (p<.05) were indicated.
The study provides initial support for the role of stagnation in mediating changes in mindfulness training. It adds evidence to body–mind nondualism and offers new possibilities in studying treatment process and change mechanism.
Research articleWeb-based Mindfulness-based Cognitive Therapy for reducing residual depressive symptoms: An open trial and quasi-experimental comparison to propensity score matched controls
Behaviour Research and Therapy, Volume 63, 2014, pp. 83-89(Video) Mindfulness Therapy session on help for anxiety and depression medication reduction
Mindfulness-based Cognitive Therapy (MBCT) has been shown to effectively prevent relapse and reduce residual depressive symptoms (RDS), yet it faces barriers to dissemination. The present study examined Mindful Mood Balance (MMB), the first web-based approach to deliver the core content of MBCT. Of the 107 recurrently depressed individuals screened, 100 elected to enroll in the study and received MMB in an 8-session open trial with 6-month follow-up. Outcomes included depressive symptom severity, rumination and mindful awareness, and program engagement. A quasi-experimental comparison between MMB participants and propensity matched case-controls receiving usual depression care (UDC) (N=100) also was conducted. The full sample and the subgroup with residual depressive symptoms (N=42) showed significantly reduced depressive severity, which was sustained over six months, and improvement on rumination and mindfulness. Examination of acceptability of MMB indicated that 42% of participants within the full sample and 36% of the RDS subgroup completed all 8 sessions and 53% within the full sample and 50% within the RDS subgroup completed at least 4 sessions, and that participants engaged with daily mindfulness practice. MMB also was associated with significant reduction in RDS severity as compared to quasi-experimental propensity matched controls. Although the use of a non-randomized design, with potential unmeasured differences between groups, and short interval of clinical follow-up were limitations, findings from this study support the web-based delivery of MBCT and suggest clinical benefits for participants with histories of depression and with RDS, relative to those receiving usual care alone.
Research articleInvestigating cognitive flexibility as a potential mechanism of mindfulness in Generalized Anxiety Disorder
Journal of Behavior Therapy and Experimental Psychiatry, Volume 45, Issue 1, 2014, pp. 208-216
Research suggests mindfulness-based treatments may enhance efficacy of CBT for Generalized Anxiety Disorder (GAD). One hypothesized mechanism of mindfulness is cognitive flexibility; however, research findings to date are mixed as to a) whether cognitive inflexibility represents a characteristic of GAD, and b) whether mindfulness impacts cognitive flexibility. It is proposed that limitations in study methodology may partially account for these mixed findings. The present study investigated cognitive flexibility as a potential mechanism of mindfulness in a sample with elevated GAD symptoms using a modified emotional Stroop switching task while attempting to control for limitations of previous research. The purpose of the study was: 1) to explore cognitive inflexibility as a potential characteristic of GAD, and 2) to examine whether a brief mindfulness induction has measurable impact on cognitive flexibility.
A total of 66 participants (53 with elevated GAD symptoms, and 13 non-anxious) were randomized to a mindful-breathing, music-assisted relaxation, or thought wandering condition prior to completing an emotional Stroop and emotional Stroop switching task.
Results suggest that GAD may be characterized by an inflexible style of responding, and exposure to mindfulness and relaxation result in partial improvements in cognitive flexibility.
Limitations of this study include small sample size, brief induction period, and use of an analog sample.
The present findings suggest that mindfulness may be associated with partial improvement in cognitive flexibility.
Research articleIsolating the Effects of Mindfulness Training Across Anxiety Disorder Diagnoses in the Unified Protocol
Behavior Therapy, Volume 51, Issue 6, 2020, pp. 972-983
The Unified Protocol for Transdiagnostic Treatment (UP; Barlow et al., 2011) has recently demonstrated statistically equivalent therapeutic effects compared to leading cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) protocols for anxiety disorders designed to address disorder-specific symptoms (i.e., single-disorder protocols [SDP]); Barlow et al., 2017). Although all treatment protocols included similar evidence-based CBT elements, investigation of those related to symptom improvement in the UP is warranted. Because the UP is unique from the SDPs for its inclusion of mindfulness, the present study evaluated mindfulness as a primary treatment element. We explored whether UP participants, compared to SDP, demonstrated greater improvements in mindfulness from pre- to posttreatment, and whether these improvements predicted posttreatment severity across anxiety disorder diagnoses. Participants were individuals with a principle anxiety disorder (N = 179) randomized to receive either the UP or SDP. Results indicated significant improvements pre- to posttreatment in mindfulness for participants receiving either the UP or SDP. However, at posttreatment, mindfulness scores were significantly greater for the UP condition. At the diagnosis level, posttreatment scores in mindfulness were significantly greater in the UP condition than the respective SDP conditions for principal Generalized Anxiety Disorder (GAD) and Social Anxiety Disorder (SOC). Moreover, results suggest that change in mindfulness is related to posttreatment severity, when moderated by treatment condition, but only for participants with principal GAD. Taken together, the UP is effective in improving mindfulness in a sample with heterogeneous anxiety disorders, but this change seems particularly relevant for reduction in symptom severity for individuals with principal GAD.
Research articleEffectiveness of mindfulness-based cognitive therapy on the management of depressive disorder: Systematic review
International Journal of Africa Nursing Sciences, Volume 12, 2020, Article 100200
Mindfulness-Based Cognitive Therapy (MBCT) was developed to prevent relapse in people with depressive disorders, and it help individuals better understand and manage their thoughts and emotions in order to achieve relief from feelings.
The objective of this paper is to review and evaluate the effectiveness of MBCT on the management of depression.
To find appropriate studies, the electronic search of the following databases (PsycINFO, PubMed, Medline CINAHL, Ebsco Host, Google scholar, and AJOL) using the keywords mindfulness, depression, depressive disorders and mindfulness-based cognitive therapy between 2009 and 2019 was done. Studies that showed empirical evidence, were an experimental study (randomized and non-randomized) and whose full text was available were evaluated.
Fifteen articles were identified, out of fifteen, fourteen were randomized while one study was a non-randomized study. Based on the analysis, the most solid outcomes for all published articles were that MBCT leads to a decrease in depressive symptoms, reduction in depression relapse rate and improvement in terms of mindfulness.
There was a piece of great evidence that MBCT has a better outcome, the MBCT presented as a promising addition for the management of depression. Researchers need to shape inadequate time points in the study designs so as to be able to regulate the form and temporal sequencing of change. Finally, findings from this systematic review can be used by nurses and other mental health practitioners on the efficacy and patient population which best respond to the MBCT technique.
Copyright © 2007 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Mindfulness-Based Cognitive Therapy (MBCT) is designed to help people who suffer repeated bouts of depression and chronic unhappiness. It combines the ideas of cognitive therapy with meditative practices and attitudes based on the cultivation of mindfulness.
Research shows that various forms of mindfulness might help reduce anxiety levels and symptoms of: generalized anxiety disorder.
Conclusion: MBCT may be an acceptable and potentially effective treatment for reducing anxiety and mood symptoms and increasing awareness of everyday experiences in patients with GAD. Future directions include development of a randomized clinical trial of MBCT for GAD.
Also known as talk therapy or psychological counseling, psychotherapy involves working with a therapist to reduce your anxiety symptoms. Cognitive behavioral therapy is the most effective form of psychotherapy for generalized anxiety disorder.
- Observing your experience (How are you doing right now?)
- Focusing on your breath.
- Attending to your body and physical sensations.
MBCT's treatment effects are mediated by augmented self-compassion and mindfulness, along with a decoupling of the relationship between reactivity of depressive thinking and poor outcome. This decoupling is associated with the cultivation of self-compassion across treatment.
The even better news: Many people respond well to anxiety treatment without medication. They find that their condition can often be managed entirely, or at least in part, with lifestyle changes and holistic therapies.
- “Calm Down!” ...
- “It's All in Your Head” ...
- “It's Really not a Big Deal” ...
- “Everything Will be Fine” ...
- “I Know How You Feel” ...
- “Have a Drink; You'll Feel Better” ...
- “Other People are Suffering from Much Worse Conditions” ...
- “You Should Try Meditation/Yoga/Veganism/etc”
- Shout it out. Talking to a trusted friend is one way to cope with anxiety. ...
- Get moving. ...
- Break up with caffeine. ...
- Give yourself a bedtime. ...
- Feel OK saying no. ...
- Don't skip meals. ...
- Give yourself an exit strategy. ...
- Live in the moment.
- Exercise. Share on Pinterest Exercise may help to treat anxiety. ...
- Meditation. Meditation can help to slow racing thoughts, making it easier to manage stress and anxiety. ...
- Relaxation exercises. ...
- Writing. ...
- Time management strategies. ...
- Aromatherapy. ...
- Cannabidiol oil. ...
- Herbal teas.
Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) are generally considered first-line therapy for GAD and PD.
Living with anxiety can be challenging. However, like other anxiety disorders, GAD is highly treatable. Some of the most effective treatments include psychotherapy, medication, and making lifestyle changes. In this article, we provide an overview of GAD, including its symptoms and causes.
Both MBCT and CBT work to help patients better control their thoughts, emotions, and responses to these factors. But MBCT differs from CBT by incorporating elements of mindfulness to additionally control the body's automatic responses to the stresses associated with many negative thoughts or feelings.
CBT focuses on how your thoughts, feelings and behavior influence each other. While DBT does work on these things, emphasis is given more towards regulating emotions, being mindful, and learning to accept pain.
Conclusions. MBCT appears to be as effective as CBT in the treatment of current depression.
Formal meditation practices include sitting meditation, mindful movement (including walking medication and gentle yoga exercises), and the body scan, which teaches individuals to mindfully focus on bodily sensations, starting with the feet and progressively moving to the head and neck.
- S – Stop what you are doing, put things down for a minute.
- T – Take a breath. ...
- O – Observe your thoughts, feelings, and emotions. ...
- P – Proceed with something that will support you in the moment.
Mindfulness-based approaches are most commonly delivered through the use of mindfulness meditation, though mindfulness may be achieved through a variety of techniques. During mindfulness meditation, the practitioner will typically guide the person or people in therapy to direct their focus on the present moment.
In general, they seek to develop three key characteristics of mindfulness: Intention to cultivate awareness (and return to it again and again) Attention to what is occurring in the present moment (simply observing thoughts, feelings, sensations as they arise) Attitude that is non-judgmental, curious, and kind.
- Non-judging. Be an impartial witness to your own experience. ...
- Patience. A form of wisdom, patience demonstrates that we accept the fact that.
- Beginner's Mind. Remaining open and curious allows us to be receptive to new.
- Trust. Develop a basic trust with yourself and your feelings. ...
- Non-Striving. ...
- Acceptance. ...
- Letting Go.
MBCT was developed for people to prevent relapse from recurring episodes of depression or deep unhappiness. It has been proven effective in patients with major depressive disorder who have experienced at least three episodes of depression.
GAD can be triggered by family or environmental stress. Chronic illness and disease can also trigger GAD.
GAD is twice as common in women, and typically develops over a period of time during early through middle-age adulthood. If left untreated, this extreme worry can eventually interfere with the ability to carry out everyday activities such as driving a car or falling asleep.
The study found that taking vitamin D supplements significantly decreased anxiety levels in women suffering from type 2 diabetes. Another study found that those suffering from anxiety had lower levels of calcidiol. Broken down vitamin D produces the byproduct, calcidiol.
Yes; generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) is a serious mental illness that is listed in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition (DSM-5).
Avoid unhealthy substance use.
Alcohol and drug use and even nicotine or caffeine use can cause or worsen anxiety. If you're addicted to any of these substances, quitting can make you anxious.
Anxiety disorders can be long-lasting, but full recovery is also possible. Some studies⁵ report that generalized anxiety disorder follows a pattern of recovery and relapse for up to 20 years.
Eat foods rich in complex carbohydrates, such as whole grains — for example, oatmeal, quinoa, whole-grain breads and whole-grain cereals. Steer clear of foods that contain simple carbohydrates, such as sugary foods and drinks. Drink plenty of water. Even mild dehydration can affect your mood.
Follow the 3-3-3 rule.
Look around you and name three things you see. Then, name three sounds you hear. Finally, move three parts of your body — your ankle, fingers, or arm.
- Cognitive restructuring or reframing. ...
- Guided discovery. ...
- Exposure therapy. ...
- Journaling and thought records. ...
- Activity scheduling and behavior activation. ...
- Behavioral experiments. ...
- Relaxation and stress reduction techniques. ...
- Role playing.
There are several strategies: 1) Acceptance that distressing thoughts occur but do not control your response 2) Dispute/correct inaccurate/unrealistic thoughts and 3) Increase cognitive flexibility. Highlight several meaningful statements and repeat them when you gain awareness of unhelpful thoughts.
Two strategies often used in CBT are Calm Breathing, which involves consciously slowing down the breath, and Progressive Muscle Relaxation, which involves systematically tensing and relaxing different muscle groups.
The basic premise underlying mindfulness practices is that experiencing the present moment nonjudgmentally and openly can effectively counter the effects of stressors, because excessive orientation toward the past or future when dealing with stressors can be related to feelings of depression and anxiety (e.g., Kabat- ...
CBT addresses anxiety by helping people make changes to the way they think and behave during times when they are anxious. CBT aims to help people interrupt and change the worried thoughts that feed into anxiety, while also helping to reduce avoidant behaviors.
If you have CBT on an individual basis, you'll usually meet with a CBT therapist for between 5 and 20 weekly or fortnightly sessions, with each session lasting 30 to 60 minutes. Exposure therapy sessions usually last longer to ensure your anxiety reduces during the session.
Does CBT For Anxiety Work? According to some studies using CBT to treat anxiety disorders can be as effective as using medication to treat anxiety disorders. Some people don't respond well to medical for disorders like depression or anxiety.
Cognitive strategies are one type of learning strategy that learners use in order to learn more successfully. These include repetition, organising new language, summarising meaning, guessing meaning from context, using imagery for memorisation.
Specifically, six key learning strategies from cognitive research can be applied to education: spaced practice, interleaving, elaborative interrogation, concrete examples, dual coding, and retrieval practice.
Follow the 3-3-3 rule.
Look around you and name three things you see. Then, name three sounds you hear. Finally, move three parts of your body — your ankle, fingers, or arm.
- Fully Focus on Your Thoughts. CBT requires an intense focus on the thoughts that come to mind throughout the day. ...
- Schedule Your Day with Manageable Tasks. ...
- Relaxation Techniques. ...
- Reframe Your Thought Patterns.
Examples of CBT techniques might include the following: Exposing yourself to situations that cause anxiety, like going into a crowded public space. Journaling about your thoughts throughout the day and recording your feelings about your thoughts.
Mindfulness can: help relieve stress, treat heart disease, lower blood pressure, reduce chronic pain, , improve sleep, and alleviate gastrointestinal difficulties.
Among its theorized benefits are self-control, objectivity, affect tolerance, enhanced flexibility, equanimity, improved concentration and mental clarity, emotional intelligence and the ability to relate to others and one's self with kindness, acceptance and compassion.
There was a suggestion that MBCT might do better than medication. The reality is that it was not superior to medication.” However, they established that mindfulness-based therapy is equally as good as drugs, which could offer a new option for those who do not want to be on medication for years.