Chapter 14 - psychological disorders Flashcards (2023)

Term

A study by psychologist Henry Steadman and his colleagues monitored the behavior of more than 1,000 former mental patients for a year after they were discharged from psychiatric facilities. They also monitored the behavior of a matched control group of people who were not former mental patients but were living in the same neighborhood. What did the study find?

A)
The people in the matched control group were more than twice as likely to smoke cigarettes as the former mental patients.

B)
Compared to the control group, the former mental patients were almost three times as likely to behave violently during the year.

C)
Compared to the control group, the former mental patients were more likely to be victims of violent crime.

D)
The former mental patients did not have a higher rate of violence than the comparison group.

Definition

D)
The former mental patients did not have a higher rate of violence than the comparison group.

Term

Present in virtually all cases of dissociative identity disorder are symptoms of:

A)
hallucinations and delusions.

B)
substance abuse and anorexia.

C)
obsessions and compulsions.

D)
amnesia, memory lapses, and memory problems.

Definition

D)
amnesia, memory lapses, and memory problems.

Term

Ataque de nervios is:

A)
the medical term for what is commonly called a “nervous breakdown.”

B)
a syndrome resembling panic disorder that typically follows a severe stressor and is seen in Puerto Rico and many Latin American countries.

C)
one of the key symptoms that distinguishes panic disorder from normal panic and anxiety.

D)
a specific phobia that literally translates as “fear of a nervous breakdown.”

Definition

B)
a syndrome resembling panic disorder that typically follows a severe stressor and is seen in Puerto Rico and many Latin American countries.

Term

The three core symptoms of _____ are (1) frequent, intrusive recollections of a traumatic event; (2) emotional numbing and avoidance of particular situations; and (3) increased physical arousal.

A)
obsessive-compulsive disorder

B)
generalized anxiety disorder

C)
posttraumatic stress disorder

D)
social phobia

Definition

C)
posttraumatic stress disorder

Term

Yvette knew that Vicky had been feeling very down lately but she was stunned when Vicky told her that she was planning to kill herself. According to your textbook, which of the following would be the most helpful way for Yvette to respond to Vicky?

A)
“Pull yourself together!”

B)
“Things always look better the next day!”

C)
“Things may seem dreary right now but remember, every cloud has a silver lining.”

D)
“Tell me what's going on and why you feel this way.”

Definition

D)
“Tell me what's going on and why you feel this way.”

Term

According to the Critical Thinking box on smoking and psychological disorders:

A)
smoking seems to trigger the onset of symptoms in people who are already vulnerable to the development of a mental disorder, especially major depression.

B)
smoking seems to delay the onset of symptoms of psychological disorders in many people.

C)
men with a psychological disorder are five times more likely to be a chronic smoker than women with a psychological disorder.

D)
an unknown substance in tobacco smoke seems to produce hallucinations in people who are vulnerable to schizophrenic symptoms.

Definition

A)
smoking seems to trigger the onset of symptoms in people who are already vulnerable to the development of a mental disorder, especially major depression.

Term

Sudden, intense, and short-lived anxiety is to _____ as ongoing, persistent, and global anxiety is to _____.

A)
specific phobia; dissociative experience

B)
generalized anxiety disorder; panic disorder

C)
agoraphobia; specific phobia

D)
panic disorder; generalized anxiety disorder

Definition

D)
panic disorder; generalized anxiety disorder

Term

Of the following characteristics, which is NOT one that your text identified as increasing the likelihood that a person will develop posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD)?

A)
a personal history of drug or alcohol abuse

B)
having a personal or family history of psychological disorders

C)
being exposed to multiple traumas

D)
being exposed to a severe trauma

Definition

A)
a personal history of drug or alcohol abuse

Term

Janet is convinced that she has one or more serious illnesses. Because of her many physical complaints and symptoms, Janet has undergone various surgeries and diagnostic procedures. In every case, her doctors said she was perfectly healthy and that the symptoms were probably due to her imagination. Which of the following psychological disorders does Janet most likely have?

A)
fetishism

B)
body dysmorphic disorder

C)
gender identity disorder

D)
hypochondriasis

Definition

D)
hypochondriasis

Term

Research has shown that both major depression and bipolar disorder:

A)
tend to run in families.

B)
are caused by repeated traumatic events.

C)
are less common among creative writers and artists than among the general population.

D)
are due to elevated brain levels of lithium.

Definition

A)
tend to run in families.

(Video) Introduction to Psychology - Chapter 14 (Psychological Disorders) Part 1 of 3

Term

Which of the following is an example of the development of a phobia through classical conditioning?

A)
John has a fear of heights and avoids looking out the window of his office in a high-rise building.

B)
After watching graphic film coverage of the aftermath of a severe tornado that has been aired repeatedly on the local TV news program, Matt feels nervous whenever there are signs of an impending storm.

C)
After being attacked by a man in an elevator, Evelyn developed a phobia of elevators and other small, confined spaces.

D)
After reading about the dangers of tick-borne diseases, Cindy is afraid to go hiking in the woods.

Definition

C)
After being attacked by a man in an elevator, Evelyn developed a phobia of elevators and other small, confined spaces.

Term

False or distorted perceptions that seem vividly real are called:

A)
secondary symptoms of schizophrenia.

B)
avolitions.

C)
delusions.

D)
hallucinations.

Definition

D)
hallucinations.

Term

Which of the following statements about people with psychological disorders is TRUE?

A)
People with psychological disorders are the most stigmatized group portrayed on television shows.

B)
Most people with a psychological disorder are not reluctant to discuss their mental problems with coworkers, neighbors, or other acquaintances.

C)
Research has shown that even people with mild psychological disorders tend to be dangerous and prone to violence.

D)
People with psychological disorders are the least stigmatized group portrayed on television shows.

Definition

A)
People with psychological disorders are the most stigmatized group portrayed on television shows.

Term

Which of the following would be an example of a phobia that reflects biological preparedness?

A)
After being mugged on a subway platform, Annie is afraid to ride the subway and insists on taking buses or cabs.

B)
After being bitten by a strange dog, Eloise is phobic of dogs.

C)
Simply eating a meal with others in a restaurant evokes unbearable anxiety in Stephen.

D)
Ever since he was a child, Alan has been terrified of snakes.

Definition

D)
Ever since he was a child, Alan has been terrified of snakes.

Term

According to the results of the National Comorbidity Survey (NCS), approximately one out of _____ American adults has experienced the symptoms of a psychological disorder in the past year.

A)
3

B)
10

C)
50

D)
500

Definition

A)
3

Term

Which of the following statements about the role of psychological factors in the onset of schizophrenia is accurate?

A)
There is a strong correlation between guilt-producing parental styles and offspring who eventually develop schizophrenia.

B)
There is a strong correlation between being raised in a single-parent home and eventually developing schizophrenia.

C)
Disturbed family communication styles have consistently emerged as the psychological factor most strongly correlated with the eventual development of schizophrenia.

D)
No single psychological factor has consistently emerged as causing schizophrenia.

Definition

D)
No single psychological factor has consistently emerged as causing schizophrenia.

Term

Use of cocaine or amphetamines causes:

A)
increased dopamine activity in the brain, which can produce schizophrenia-like symptoms.

B)
decreased dopamine activity in the brain, which can produce schizophrenia-like symptoms.

C)
increased dopamine activity in the brain, which often reduces the symptoms of schizophrenia.

D)
increased susceptibility to the dopamine virus.

Definition

A)
increased dopamine activity in the brain, which can produce schizophrenia-like symptoms

Term

Which of the following statements is TRUE?

A)
Men who father children at the age of 50 or older are three times more likely than younger fathers to produce offspring with schizophrenia.

B)
Women who conceive children at the age of 40 or older are four times more likely than younger mothers to produce offspring with schizophrenia.

C)
Both of the statements are true.

D)
None of the statements are true.

Definition

A)
Men who father children at the age of 50 or older are three times more likely than younger fathers to produce offspring with schizophrenia.

Term

Justin is hearing voices that he believes are coming from the Central Intelligence Agency. He is extremely suspicious and distrustful of his neighbors, whom he suspects are actually agents of a foreign country. Justin appears to be experiencing the _____ type of schizophrenia.

A)
paranoid

B)
catatonic

C)
disorganized

D)
undifferentiated

Definition

A)
paranoid

Term

Which of the following is cited as evidence supporting the viral infection theory of schizophrenia?

A)
The onset of schizophrenia almost always involves inflammation of the outer covering of the brain.

B)
Approximately two-thirds of the people with schizophrenia have been treated for hepatitis.

C)
Schizophrenia occurs more often in people who were born during the winter and spring months, when influenza and upper respiratory infections are most common.

D)
Schizophrenia is more common among people who live in wooded areas, which increases exposure to ticks and rodents.

Definition

A)
The onset of schizophrenia almost always involves inflammation of the outer covering of the brain.

(Video) Introduction to Psychology - 15 Psychological Disorders - Flashcards

Term

The physical symptoms of _____ often accompany major depression.

A)
anxiety

B)
schizophrenia

C)
body dysmorphic disorder

D)
dissociative fugue

Definition

A)
anxiety

Term

Despite attempts by his friends who have tried to reason with him, Simon is convinced that the Fox Network news announcer is talking in a special code about him and his thoughts. Simon appears to be experiencing:

A)
alogia

B)
delusions of persecution.

C)
delusions of reference.

D)
waxy flexibility.

Definition

C)
delusions of reference.

Term

Which of the following statements about social phobia is FALSE?

A)
People with social phobia typically are unaware that their fears are unreasonable or excessive.

B)
Social phobia is more prevalent among women than men.

C)
People with social phobia fear being embarrassed or failing in public.

D)
Social phobia is also called social anxiety disorder.

Definition

A)
People with social phobia typically are unaware that their fears are unreasonable or excessive.

Term

According to the research presented in the Critical Thinking box on smoking and psychological disorders, nicotine is implicated in psychological disorders because:

A)
people with psychological disorders tend to absorb more nicotine from cigarettes than other people, making it easier for them to become addicted to nicotine.

B)
people with schizophrenia or depression tend to have abnormally high threshold levels for responding to nicotine.

C)
nicotine affects many of the same neurotransmitters and brain areas that are involved in mental disorders.

D)
nicotine can cause hallucinations and other sensory distortions in people who are biologically vulnerable to its effects.

Definition

C)
nicotine affects many of the same neurotransmitters and brain areas that are involved in mental disorders.

Term

Howard is a 27-year-old man who lives in San Francisco. He has been fired from numerous jobs, usually because he got caught lying or repeatedly failed to show up for work. Howard has also been arrested twice for running various “con” games in which he swindles money out of unsuspecting tourists. He has been in and out of drug rehab for alcohol abuse several times. Howard's pattern of behaviors seems to fit which of the following disorders?

A)
antisocial personality disorder

B)
dissociative identity disorder

C)
cyclothymic personality disorder

D)
disorganized schizophrenia

Definition

A)
antisocial personality disorder

Term

Lou Ann has been diagnosed with a psychological disorder called agoraphobia. Lou Ann is afraid of:

A)
heights.

B)
having a panic attack in a public place.

C)
her home.

D)
lightning.

Definition

B)
having a panic attack in a public place.

Term

In the Focus on Neuroscience box on schizophrenia and the brain, neuroscientist Paul Thompson used high-resolution brain scans to compare brain development in _____ over a five-year period.

A)
adolescents with early-onset schizophrenia and adolescents with bipolar disorder

B)
normal adolescents and adolescents with early-onset schizophrenia

C)
normal young adults and young adults with schizophrenia

D)
senior adults with late-onset schizophrenia and senior adults with Alzheimer's disease

Definition

B)
normal adolescents and adolescents with early-onset schizophrenia

Term

Paige has been diagnosed with bulimia nervosa. Which of the following is a key characteristic of her eating disorder?

A)
loss of appetite

B)
being 15 to 20 percent below her ideal body weight

C)
binge eating and purging by self-induced vomiting

D)
being unaware of the fact that she has an eating disorder

Definition

C)
binge eating and purging by self-induced vomiting

Term

According to the _____ theory of panic disorder, misinterpretation of normal signs of physical arousal, catastrophic thoughts, and a conditioned response to physical arousal are all factors that play a role in explaining panic disorder.

A)
genetic

B)
psychoanalytic

C)
evolutionary

D)
cognitive-behavioral

Definition

D)
cognitive-behavioral

Term

Disruptions in the normal patterns of sleep are one of the main characteristics of major depression. How are normal sleep patterns disrupted?

A)
The amount of time spent in nondreaming, deeply relaxed sleep doubles or triples during major depression.

B)
Depressed people often awaken spontaneously at three or four o'clock in the morning and cannot get back to sleep even though they are still tired.

C)
Although depressed people sleep and dream much less than normal, they claim that they feel adequately rested by their sleep.

D)
Periods of dreaming REM sleep occur in 90-minute cycles rather than continuously throughout the night.

Definition

B)
Depressed people often awaken spontaneously at three or four o'clock in the morning and cannot get back to sleep even though they are still tired.

(Video) Psychological Disorders: Crash Course Psychology #28

Term

One finding of the National Comorbidity Survey (NCS) is that:

A)
women were twice as likely as men to have substance abuse or dependence disorders.

B)
there do not appear to be any gender differences in the prevalence of mental disorders.

C)
most of the people who had experienced the symptoms of a mental disorder in the previous year seemed to survive their symptoms without becoming completely debilitated.

D)
men were almost twice as likely as women to suffer the symptoms of major depression at some point in their lifetimes.

Definition

C)
most of the people who had experienced the symptoms of a mental disorder in the previous year seemed to survive their symptoms without becoming completely debilitated.

Term

Which of the following involves the development of a phobia through operant conditioning?

A)
The person has a predisposition to develop a phobia about objects or situations that represented a threat to survival in our evolutionary past.

B)
As a result of a stimulus being associated with an unpleasant event, this previously neutral stimulus now becomes a conditioned stimulus and elicits a fear response.

C)
The person learns to fear a particular object or situation by observing another person reacting fearfully to it.

D)
Avoiding the feared object or situation is negatively reinforcing, so the person is more likely to avoid the feared object or situation again in the future.

Definition

D)
Avoiding the feared object or situation is negatively reinforcing, so the person is more likely to avoid the feared object or situation again in the future.

Term

In a dissociative experience, what normally integrated aspects of personality are divided or separated?

A)
memory, consciousness, and emotion

B)
emotion, motivation, and memory

C)
awareness, memory, and personal identity

D)
awareness, motivation, and mood

Definition

C)
awareness, memory, and personal identity

Term

Patrick has been diagnosed as suffering from social phobia. Patrick is likely to suffer from:

A)
simple shyness.

B)
the overwhelming urge to repeatedly wash his hands to avoid being contaminated by other people's germs.

C)
a paralyzing fear of crowds, particularly in confined areas like elevators, theaters, or small rooms.

D)
a paralyzing fear of performing even routine behaviors in public situations or in front of other people.

Definition

D)
a paralyzing fear of performing even routine behaviors in public situations or in front of other people.

Term

Which of the following statements about the Jerusalem syndrome is FALSE?

A)
Tour guides and hotel employees in Jerusalem are familiar with the symptoms of Jerusalem syndrome and will notify authorities if they observe someone displaying the symptoms.

B)
Approximately 100 cases of Jerusalem syndrome occur every year.

C)
Most people who experience the Jerusalem syndrome have a history of serious mental disorders, but in about 10 percent of the cases of Jerusalem syndrome, the person has no history of mental disorders.

D)
The incidence of Jerusalem Syndrome has increased dramatically in the past decade, suggesting that the disorder may be a reflection of increased media coverage rather than a true psychological disorder.

Definition

D)
The incidence of Jerusalem Syndrome has increased dramatically in the past decade, suggesting that the disorder may be a reflection of increased media coverage rather than a true psychological disorder.

Term

One explanation for dissociative identity disorder is that it results from:

A)
extreme trauma in childhood; the alters are created to embody the dissociated memories and emotions that are too painful for the primary personality to acknowledge.

B)
a very repressed childhood; alters are created to allow the primary personality to enjoy activities that he or she would otherwise avoid.

C)
an extreme case of bipolar disorder, in which mood swings are so severe that “alternate personalities” seem to exist.

D)
the split personality present in chronic schizophrenia, which involves unpredictable behavior and extreme shifts in emotion.

Definition

A)
extreme trauma in childhood; the alters are created to embody the dissociated memories and emotions that are too painful for the primary personality to acknowledge.

Term

Why is the dissociative coping explanation of dissociative identity disorder difficult to test?

A)
Dissociative identity disorder is so rarely diagnosed that experimental subjects cannot be located.

B)
Dissociative identity disorder is usually diagnosed in adulthood, and it is often impossible to verify whether the reports of childhood trauma are real or imagined.

C)
People with dissociative identity disorder typically also suffer from extreme paranoia, so they are usually unwilling to participate in psychological research.

D)
People with dissociative identity disorder rarely answer the same questions the same way twice, so it is impossible to draw conclusions from formal interviews or psychological tests.

Definition

B)
Dissociative identity disorder is usually diagnosed in adulthood, and it is often impossible to verify whether the reports of childhood trauma are real or imagined.

Term

During a manic episode, the person's thoughts often rapidly shift from topic to topic. This characteristic is referred to as:

A)
rapid cycling.

B)
a dissociative experience.

C)
delusional thinking.

D)
a flight of ideas.

Definition

D)
a flight of ideas.

Term

According to the information presented in the Critical Thinking box on smoking and psychological disorders:

A)
researchers are exploring the use of nicotine gum and patches as an alternative to antidepressant medications for people with major depression or dysthymic disorder.

B)
people with multiple psychological disorders have higher rates of smoking and smoke more cigarettes per day than people with one or no psychological disorders.

C)
people who smoke a pack of cigarettes per day or more seem to develop a brain “buffer” that reduces the chances of major depression occurring or recurring.

D)
researchers are at a loss to explain why people with schizophrenia are much less likely to develop any of the cancers commonly associated with cigarette smoking.

Definition

B)
people with multiple psychological disorders have higher rates of smoking and smoke more cigarettes per day than people with one or no psychological disorders.

Term

Claire stopped taking her medication a few weeks ago and has recently begun to experience some very odd symptoms. If someone asks her a question, her response makes no sense, as her sentences seem to just be strings of loosely connected ideas. She cannot concentrate on anything, and her thinking seems completely illogical and disorganized. She veers from one unrelated topic or activity to another for no apparent reason. Taken together, Claire appears to be experiencing schizophrenic symptoms that are called:

A)
waxy flexibility.

B)
disorganized thinking.

C)
flat affect.

D)
avolition.

Definition

B)
disorganized thinking.

(Video) Biological Psychology: Chapters 14-15

Term

Deceiving and manipulating others for one's own personal gain is a hallmark of which personality disorder?

A)
antisocial

B)
dependent

C)
histrionic

D)
paranoid

Definition

A)
antisocial

Term

According to the Critical Thinking box on smoking and psychological disorders, research strongly suggests that smoking contributes to the development of all of the following psychological disorders EXCEPT:

A)
bipolar disorder.

B)
dissociative identity disorder.

C)
depression.

D)
schizophrenia.

Definition

B)
dissociative identity disorder

Term

A person with _____ personality disorder is more likely to be self-destructive and threaten to self-mutilate or commit suicide.

A)
antisocial

B)
narcissistic

C)
schizoid

D)
borderline

Definition

D)
borderline

Term

Lana is about the right weight for her age and height. Nevertheless, she is so preoccupied by her fear of becoming overweight that whenever she goes on an eating binge, she purges the excessive food by self-induced vomiting. It is likely that Lana suffers from:

A)
anorexia nervosa.

B)
bulimia nervosa.

C)
obsessive-compulsive disorder.

D)
agoraphobia.

Definition

B)
bulimia nervosa.

Term

.
_____ is/are to positive symptoms of schizophrenia as _____ is/are to negative symptoms of schizophrenia.

A)
Reduced emotional expressiveness; hallucinations

B)
Hallucinations; reduced speech

C)
Reduced motivation; delusions

D)
Delusions; hallucinations

Definition

B)
Hallucinations; reduced speech

Term

Which of the following factors has been linked to the development of schizophrenia?

A)
having a mother who was 40 years old or older when the person was conceived

B)
having a father who was 45 years old or older when the person was conceived

C)
both factors

D)
none of these factors

Definition

B)
having a father who was 45 years old or older when the person was conceived

Term

Which of the following statements about patterns of suicide in the United States is FALSE?

A)
Women outnumber men in the number of suicide attempts.

B)
Men outnumber women in the number of suicide deaths.

C)
The highest rate of suicide occurs in the adolescent age group.

D)
Each year, almost twice as many Americans die from suicide than from homicide.

Definition

C)
The highest rate of suicide occurs in the adolescent age group.

Term

Which of the following examples reflects a symptom of an anxiety disorder rather than normal anxiety?

A)
The night before his final exam, Bill is unable to sleep because he is worried about doing well on the test.

B)
For the past several weeks, Mavis has been unable to concentrate at work because she keeps thinking that something terrible might happen to her son at school, even though she knows that he's safe.

C)
Seth is upset because his girlfriend told him she wants to start dating other guys, and he is afraid that she will break up with him.

D)
Barbara has just found out that her company has been sold, and she is very worried that she might lose her job.

Definition

B)
For the past several weeks, Mavis has been unable to concentrate at work because she keeps thinking that something terrible might happen to her son at school, even though she knows that he's safe.

Term

The main symptom of a disorder called _____ is frequent, unpredictable, and unexpected panic attacks.

A)
general anxiety disorder

B)
panic disorder

C)
agoraphobia

D)
dissociative fugue

Definition

B)
panic disorder

Term

Jack was found sleeping on a park bench. When awakened by a police officer, he could not remember who he was or where he lived. Later, investigators discovered that Jack's wife had left him the night before after a violent fight in which he tried to attack her. Jack insists that he has no memories of the dispute with his wife or even of having been married. Jack is probably suffering from:

A)
dissociative identity disorder.

B)
dissociative possession state.

C)
dissociative amnesia.

D)
hebephrenic schizophrenia.

Definition

C)
dissociative amnesia.

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